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Jump Back in Time 進步時代 (1890-1913) 
'Negro Drinking at 'Colored' Water Cooler in Streetcar Terminal, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma,' 1939.
黑人與白人必須使用不同的飲水器與冷藏箱 (1939年攝於奧克拉荷馬市的電車站)

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「普萊西對弗格森」 (Plessy v. Ferguson)

有超過50年的時間,美國南方州強制執行一項黑人與白人的隔離政策,不管是在公車上、火車上,飯店裡、戲院裡,甚至是學校裡,他們都被加以隔離。西元1896518日,最高法院審理「普萊西控告弗格森」一案,控訴內容是在爭論火車等設施中實施的「隔離但平等」這種政策是否合乎憲法。其中一名叫做約翰‧馬歇爾‧哈藍 (John Marshell Harlan) 的法官並不同意州政府這種政策,並且主張將黑人與白人在公共場合隔離的作法是不平等的,是在暗示某個種族比其他種族更為低劣。

For over 50 years, the states of the American South enforced a policy of separate accommodations for blacks and whites on buses and trains, and in hotels, theaters, and schools. On May 18, 1896, the Supreme Court ruled in the Plessy v. Ferguson law case that separate-but-equal facilities on trains were constitutional. One justice, John Marshall Harlan, disagreed with the ruling and argued that separating blacks from whites (called segregation) in public facilities created inequality and marked one race as inferior to another.

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