U.S. ECONOMY > International Trade > Region-Specific Trade Information > North American Free Trade Agreement

North American Free Trade Agreement Between
The Government of Canada,
The Government of the United Mexican States
and The Government of the United States of America

Table of Contents

Volume I


  1. Chapter One:Objectives
    Article 101: Establishment of the Free Trade Area
    Article 102: Objectives
    Article 103: Relation to Other Agreements
    Article 104: Relation to Environmental and Conservation Agreements
    Article 105: Extent of Obligations
  2. Chapter Two: General Definitions
    Article 201: Definitions of General Application
  3. Chapter Three: National Treatment and Market Access for Goods
    Article 300: Scope and Coverage
    Section A - National Treatment
    Article 301: National Treatment
    Section B - Tariffs
    Article 302: Tariff Elimination
    Article 303: Restriction on Drawback and Duty Referral Programs
    Article 304: Waiver of Customs Duties
    Article 305: Temporary Admission of Goods
    Article 306: Duty-Free Entry of Certain Commercial Samples and Printed Advertising Materials
    Article 307: Goods Re-Entered after Repair or Alteration
    Article 308: Most-Favored-Nation Rates of Duty on Certain Goods
    Section C - Non-Tariff Measures
    Article 309: Import and Export Restrictions
    Article 310: Customs User Fees
    Article 311: Country of Origin Marking
    Article 312: Wine and Distilled Spirits
    Article 313: Distinctive Products
    Article 314: Export Taxes
    Article 315: Other Export Measures
    Section D - Consultations
    Article 316: Consultations and Committee on Trade in Goods
    Article 317: Third-Country Dumping
    Section E - Definitions
    Article 318: Definitions
  4. Annex 300-A: Trade and Investment in the Automotive Sector

    Section 1: Scope and Coverage
    Section 2: Tariff Elimination
    Section 3: Import and Export Prohibitions, Restrictions and Consultation Levels
    Section 4: Bilateral Emergency Actions (Tariff Actions)
    Section 5: Bilateral Emergency Actions (Quantitative Restrictions)
    Section 6: Special Provisions
    Section 7: Review and Revision of Rules of Origin 1.
    Section 8: Labelling Requirements
    Section 9: Trade in Worn Clothing and Other Worn Articles
    Section 10: Definitions
    Appendix 1.: List of Goods Covered by Annex 300-B
    Appendix 2.1: Tariff Elimination
    Schedule 2.1.B: Exceptions to Tariff Phaseout Formula Specified in Appendix 2.1
    Appendix 2.4: Tariff Elimination on Certain Textile and Apparel Goods
    Appendix 3.1: Administration of Import and Export Prohibitions, Restrictions and Consultation Levels
    Schedule 3.1.1: Schedule for the Elimination of Restrictions and Consultation Levels on Exports from Mexico to the United States
    Schedule 3.1.2: Restrictions and Consultation Levels on Exports from Mexico to the United States
    Schedule 3.1.3: Conversion Factors
    Appendix 5.1: Bilateral Emergency Actions (Quantitative Restrictions)
    Appendix 6: Special Provisions
    Schedule 6.B.1: Preferential Tariff Treatment for Non-Originating Apparel and Made-Up Goods
    Schedule 6.B.2: Preferential Tariff Treatment for Non-Originating Cotton or Man-made Fiber Fabrics and Made-Up Goods
    Schedule 6.B.3: Preferential Tariff Treatment for Non-Originating Cotton or Man-made Fiber Spun Yarn
    Appendix 10.1: Country-Specific Definitions

  5. Chapter Four: Rules of Origin
    Article 401: Originating Goods
    Article 402: Regional Value Content
    Article 403: Automotive Goods
    Article 404: Accumulation
    Article 405: De Minimis
    Article 406: Fungible Goods and Materials
    Article 407: Accessories, Spare Parts and Tools
    Article 408: Indirect Materials
    Article 409: Packaging Materials and Containers for Retail Sale
    Article 410: Packing Materials and Containers for Shipment
    Article 411: Transshipment
    Article 412: Non-Qualifying Operations
    Article 413: Interpretation and Application
    Article 414: Consultation and Modifications
    Article 415 : Definitions
  6. Chapter Five: Customs Procedures
    Section A - Certification of Origin
    Article 501: Certificate of Origin
    Article 502: Obligations Regarding Importations
    Article 503: Exceptions
    Article 504: Obligations Regarding Exportations
    Section B - Administration and Enforcement
    Article 505: Records
    Article 506: Origin Verifications
    Article 507: Confidentiality
    Article 508: Penalties
    Section C - Advance Rulings
    Article 509: Advance Rulings
    Section D - Review and Appeal of Origin Determinations and Advance Rulings
    Article 510: Review and Appeal
    Section E - Uniform Regulations
    Article 511: Unifor Regulations
    Section F - Cooperation
    Article 512: Cooperation
    Article 513: Working Group and Customs Subgroup
    Article 514: Definitions
  7. Chapter Six: Energy and Basic Petrochemicals
    Article 601: Principles
    Article 602: Scope and Coverage
    Article 603: Import and Export Restrictions
    Article 604: Export Taxes
    Article 605: Other Export Measures
    Article 606: Energy Regulatory Measures
    Article 607: National Security Measures
    Article 608: Miscellaneous Provisions
    Article 609: Definitions
  8. Chapter Seven: Agriculture and Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
    Section A - Agriculture
    Article 701: Scope and Coverage
    Article 702: International Obligations
    Article 703: Market Access
    Article 704: Domestic Support
    Article 705: Export Subsidies
    Article 706: Committee on Agricultural Trade
    Article 707: Advisory Committee on Private Commercial Disputes Regarding Agricultural Goods
    Article 708: Definitions
  9. Section B - Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
    Article 709: Scope and Coverage
    Article 710: Relation to Other Chapters
    Article 711: Reliance on Non-Governmental Entities
    Article 712: Basic Rights and Obligations
    Article 713: International Standards and Standardizing Organizations
    Article 714: Equivalence
    Article 715: Risk Assessment and Appropriate Level of Protection
    Article 716: Adaptation to Regional Conditions
    Article 717: Control, Inspection and Approval Procedures
    Article 718: Notification, Publication and Provision of Information
    Article 719: Inquiry Points
    Article 720: Technical Cooperation
    Article 721: Limitations on the Provisions of Information
    Article 722: Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
    Article 723: Technical Consultations
    Article 724: Definitions

  10. Chapter Eight: Emergency Action
    Article 801: Bilateral Actions
    Article 802: Global Actions
    Article 803: Administration of Emergency Action Proceedings
    Article 804: Dispute Settlement in Emergency Action Matters
    Article 805: Definitions
  11. Chapter Nine: Standards-Related Measures
    Article 901: Scope and Coverage
    Article 902: Extent of Obligations
    Article 903: Affirmation of Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade and Other Agreements
    Article 904: Basic Rights and Obligations
    Article 905: Use of International Standards
    Article 906: Compatibility and Equivalence
    Article 907: Assessment of Risk
    Article 908: Conformity Assessment
    Article 909: Notification, Publication, and Provision of Information
    Article 910: Inquiry Points
    Article 911: Technical Cooperation
    Article 912: Limitations on the Provision of Information
    Article 913: Committee on Standards-Related Measures
    Article 914: Technical Consultations
    Article 915: Definitions
  12. Chapter Ten: Government Procurement
    Section A: Scope and Coverage and National Treatment
    Article 1001: Scope and Coverage
    Article 1002: Valuation of Contracts
    Article 1003: National Treatment and Non-Discrimination
    Article 1004: Rules of Origen
    Article 1005: Denial of Benefits
    Article 1006: Prohibition of Offsets
    Article 1007: Technical Specifications
    Section B: Tendering Procedures
    Article 1008: Tendering Procedures
    Article 1009: Qualification of Suppliers
    Article 1010: Invitation to Participate
    Article 1011: Selective Tendering Procedures
    Article 1012: Time Limits for Tendering and Delivery
    Article 1013: Tender Documentation
    Article 1014: Negotiation Disciplines
    Article 1015: Submission, Receipt and Opening of Tenders and Awarding of Contracts
    Article 1016: Limited Tendering Procedures
    Section C: Bid Challenge
    Article 1017: Bid Challenge
    Section D: General Provisions
    Article 1018: Exceptions
    Article 1019: Provision of Information
    Article 1020: Technical Cooperation
    Article 1021: Joint Programs for Small Business
    Article 1022: Rectifications or Modifications
    Article 1023: Divestiture of Entities
    Article 1024: Further Negotiations
    Article 1025: Definitions
  13. Chapter Eleven: Investment
    Section A - Investment
    Article 1101: Scope and Coverage
    Article 1102: National Treatment
    Article 1103: Most-Favored-Nation Treatment
    Article 1104: Standard of Treatment
    Article 1105: Minimum Standard of Treatment
    Article 1106: Performance Requirements
    Article 1107: Senior Management and Boards of Directors
    Article 1108: Reservations and Exceptions
    Article 1109: Transfers
    Article 1110: Expropriation and Compensation
    Article 1111: Special Formalities and Information Requirements
    Article 1112: Relation to Other Chapters
    Article 1113: Denial of Benefits
    Article 1114: Environmental Measures
    Section B - Settlement of Disputes between a Party and an Investor of Another Party
    Article 1115: Purpose
    Article 1116: Claim by an Investor of a Party on Its Own Behalf
    Article 1117: Claim by an Investor of a Party on Behalf of an Enterprise
    Article 1118: Settlement of a Claim through Consultation and Negotiation
    Article 1119: Notice of Intent to Submit a Claim to Arbitration
    Article 1120: Submission of a Claim to Arbitration
    Article 1121: Conditions Precedent to Submission of a Claim to Arbitration
    Article 1122: Consent to Arbitration
    Article 1123: Number of Arbitrators and Method of Appointment
    Article 1124: Constitution of a Tribunal When a Party Fails to Appoint an Arbitrator or the Disputing Parties are Unable to Agree on a Presiding Arbitrator
    Article 1125: Agreement to Appointment of Arbitrators
    Article 1126: Consolidation
    Article 1127: Notice
    Article 1128: Participation by a Party
    Article 1129: Documents
    Article 1130: Place of Arbitration
    Article 1131: Governing Law
    Article 1132: Interpretation of Annexes
    Article 1133: Expert Reports
    Article 1134: Interim Measures of Protection
    Article 1135: Final Award
    Article 1136: Finality and Enforcement of an Award
    Article 1137: General
    Article 1138: Exclusions
    Article 1139: Definitions
  14. Chapter Twelve: Cross-Border Trade in Services
    Article 1201: Scope and Coverage
    Article 1202: National Treatment
    Article 1203: Most-Favored-Nation Treatment
    Article 1204: Standard of Treatment
    Article 1205: Local Presence
    Article 1206: Reservations
    Article 1207: Quantitative Restrictions
    Article 1208: Liberalization of Non-Discriminatory Measures
    Article 1209: Procedures
    Article 1210: Licensing and Certification
    Article 1211: Denial of Benefits
    Article 1212: Sectoral Annex
    Article 1213: Definitions
  15. Chapter Thirteen: Telecommunications
    Article 1301: Scope and Coverage
    Article 1302: Access to and Use of Public Telecommunications Transport Networks and Services
    Article 1303: Conditions for the Provision of Enhanced or Value-Added Services
    Article 1304: Standards-Related Measures
    Article 1305: Monopolies
    Article 1306: Transparency
    Article 1307: Relation to Other Chapters
    Article 1308: Relation to International Organizations and Agreements
    Article 1309: Technical Cooperation and Other Consultations
    Article 1310: Definitions
  16. Chapter Fourteen: Financial Services
    Article 1401: Scope and Coverage
    Article 1402: Self-Regulatory Organizations
    Article 1403: Establishment of Financial Institutions
    Article 1404: Cross-Border Trade
    Article 1405: National Treatment
    Article 1406: Most-Favored-Nation Treatment
    Article 1407: New Financial Services and Data Processing
    Article 1408: Senior Management and Boards of Directors
    Article 1409: Reservations and Specific Commitments
    Article 1410: Exceptions
    Article 1411: Transparency
    Article 1412: Financial Services Committee
    Article 1413: Consultations
    Article 1414: Dispute Settlement
    Article 1415: Investment Disputes in Financial Services
    Article 1416: Definitions
  17. Chapter Fifteen: Competition Policy, Monopolies and State Enterprises
    Article 1501: Competition Law
    Article 1502: Monopolies and State Enterprises
    Article 1503: State Enterprises
    Article 1504: Working Group on Trade and Competition
    Article 1505: Definitions
  18. Chapter Sixteen: Temporary Entry for Business Persons
    Article 1601: General Principles
    Article 1602: General Obligations
    Article 1603: Grant of Temporary Entry
    Article 1604: Provision of Information
    Article 1605: Working Group
    Article 1606: Dispute Settlement
    Article 1607: Relation
    Article 1608: Definitions
  19. Chapter Seventeen: Intellectual Property
    Article 1701: Nature and Scope of Obligations
    Article 1702: More Extensive Protection
    Article 1703: National Treatment
    Article 1704: Control of Abusive or Anticompetitive Practices or Conditions
    Article 1705: Copyright
    Article 1706: Sound Recordings
    Article 1707: Protection of Encrypted Program-Carrying Satellite Signals
    Article 1708: Trademarks
    Article 1709: Patents
    Article 1710: Layout Designs of Semiconductor Integrated Circuits
    Article 1711: Trade Secrets
    Article 1712: Geographical Indications
    Article 1713: Industrial Designs
    Article 1714: Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights: General Provisions
    Article 1715: Specific Procedural and Remedial Aspects of Civil and Administrative Procedures
    Article 1716: Provisional Measures
    Article 1717: Criminal Procedures and Penalties
    Article 1718: Enforcement of Intellectual Property Rights at the Border
    Article 1719: Cooperation and Technical Assistance
    Article 1720: Protection of Existing Subject Matter
    Article 1721: Definitions
  20. Chapter Eighteen: Publication, Notification and Administration of Laws
    Article 1801: Contact Points
    Article 1802: Publication
    Article 1803: Notification and Provision of Information
    Article 1804: Administrative Proceedings
    Article 1805: Review and Appeal
    Article 1806: Definitions
  21. Chapter Nineteen: Review and Dispute Settlement in Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Matters
    Article 1901: General Provisions
    Article 1902: Retenetion of Domestic Antidumping Law and Countervailing Duty Law
    Article 1903: Review of Statutory Amendments
    Article 1904: Review of Final Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Determinations
    Article 1905: Safeguarding the Panel Review System
    Article 1906: Prospective Application
    Article 1907: Consultations
    Article 1908: Special Secretariat Provisions
    Article 1909: Code of Conduct
    Article 1910: Miscellaneous
    Article 1911: Definitions
  22. Chapter Twenty: Institutional Arrangements and Dispute Settlement Procedures
    Section A - Institutions
    Article 2001: The Free Trade Commission
    Article 2002: The Secretariat
    Section B - Dispute Settlement
    Article 2003: Cooperation
    Article 2004: Recourse to Dispute Settlement Procedures
    Article 2005: GATT Dispute Settlement
    Article 2006: Consultations
    Article 2007: Commission - Good Offices, Conciliation and Meditation
    Article 2008: Request for Arbitral Panel
    Article 2009: Roster
    Article 2010: Qualifications of Panelists
    Article 2011: Panel Selection
    Article 2012: Rules of Procedure
    Article 2013: Third Party Participation
    Article 2014: Role of Experts
    Article 2015: Scientific Review Boards
    Article 2016: Initial Report
    Article 2017: Final Report
    Article 2018: Implementation of Final Report
    Article 2019: Non-Implementation - Suspension of Benefits
    Section C - Domestic Proceedings and Private Commercial Dispute Settlement
    Article 2020: Referrals of Matters from Judicial or Administrative Proceedings
    Article 2021: Private Rights
    Article 2022: Alternative Dispute Resolution
  23. Chapter Twenty-One: Exceptions
    Article 2101: General Exceptions
    Article 2102: National Security
    Article 2103: Taxation
    Article 2104: Balance of Payments
    Article 2105: Disclosure of Information
    Article 2106: Cultural Industries
    Article 2107: Definitions
  24. Chapter Twenty-Two: Final Provisions
    Article 2201: Annexes
    Article 2202: Amendments
    Article 2203: Entry into Force
    Article 2204: Accession
    Article 2205: Withdrawal
    Article 2206: Authentic Texts
  25. Notes
  26. Annex 401: Specific Rules of Origin
    Section A: General Interpretative Note
  27. Section B: Specific Rules of Origin
  28. Annexes I through VII: Reservations and Exceptions to Investment, Cross-Border Trade in Services and Financial Services Chapters
    Annex I: Reservations for Existing Measures and Liberalization Commitments (Chapters 11, 12, and 14)
  29. Annex II: Reservations for Future Measures (Chapters 11, 12, and 14)

    Annex III: Activities Reserved to the State (Chapter 11)

    Annex IV: Exceptions from Most-Favored-Nation Treatment (Chapter 11)

    Annex V: Quantitative Restrictions (Chapter 12)

    Annex VI: Miscellaneous Commitments (Chapter 12)

    Annex VII: Reservations, Specific Commitments and Other Items (Chapter 14)

  30. North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation
    Part One: Objectives
    Article 1: Objectives
    Part Two: Obligations
    Article 2: General Commitments
    Article 3: Levels of Protection
    Article 4: Publication
    Article 5: Government Enforcement Action
    Article 6: Private Access to Remedies
    Article 7: Procedural Guarantees
    Part Three: Commission for Environmental Cooperation
    Article 8: The Commission
    Article 9: Council Structure
    Article 10: Council Functions
    Article 11: Secretariat Structure and Procedures
    Article 12: Annual Report of the Commission
    Article 13: Secretariat Reports
    Article 14: Submissions on Enforcement Matters
    Article 15: Factual Record
    Article 16: Joint Public Advisory Committee
    Article 17: National Advisory Committees
    Article 18: Governmental Committees
    Article 19: Official Languages
    Part Four: Cooperation and Provision of Information
    Article 20: Cooperation
    Article 21: Provision of Information
    Part Five: Consultation and Resolution of Disputes
    Article 22: Consultations
    Article 23: Initiation of Procedures
    Article 24: Request for an Arbitral Panel
    Article 25: Roster
    Article 26: Qualifications of Panelists
    Article 27: Panel Selection
    Article 28: Rules of Procedure
    Article 29: Third Party Participation
    Article 30: Role of Experts
    Article 31: Initial Report
    Article 32: Final Report
    Article 33: Implementation of Final Report
    Article 34: Review of Implementation
    Article 35: Further Proceeding
    Article 36: Suspension of Benefits
    Part Six: General Provisions
    Article 37: Enforcement Principle
    Article 38: Private Rights
    Article 39: Protection of Information
    Article 40: Relation to Other Environmental Agreements
    Article 41: Extent of Obligations
    Article 42: National Security
    Article 43: Funding of the Commission
    Article 44: Privileges and Immunities
    Article 45: Definitions
    Part Seven: Final Provisions
    Article 46: Annexes
    Article 47: Entry into Force
    Article 48: Amendments
    Article 49: Accession
    Article 50: Withdrawal
    Article 51: Authentic Texts
  31. North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation
    Part One: Objectives
    Article 1: Objectives
    Part Two: Obligations
    Article 2: Levels of Protection
    Article 3: Government Enforcement Action
    Article 4: Private Action
    Article 5: Procedural Guarantees
    Article 6: Publication
    Article 7: Public Information and Awareness
    Part Three: Commission for Labor Cooperation
    Article 8: The Commission
    Section A: The Council
    Article 9: Council Structure and Procedures
    Article 10: Council Functions
    Article 11: Cooperative Activities
    Section B: The Secretariat
    Article 12: Secretariat Structure and Procedures
    Article 13: Secretariat Functions
    Article 14: Secretariat Reports and Studies
    Section C: National Administrative Offices
    Article 15: National Administrative Office Structure
    Article 16: NAO Functions
    Section D: National Committees
    Article 17: National Advisory Committee
    Article 18: Governmental Committee
    Section E: Official Languages
    Article 19: Official Languages
    Part Four: Cooperative Consultations and Evaluations
    Article 20: Cooperation
    Section A: Cooperative Consultations
    Article 21: Consultations between NAOs
    Article 22: Ministerial Consultations
    Section B: Evaluations
    Article 23: Evaluation Committee of Experts
    Article 24: Rules of Procedure
    Article 25: Draft Evaluation Reports
    Article 26: Final Evaluation Reports
    Part Five: Resolution of Disputes
    Article 27: Consultations
    Article 28: Initiation of Procedures
    Article 29: Request for an Arbitral Panel
    Article 30: Roster
    Article 31: Qualifications of Panelists
    Article 32: Panel Selection
    Article 33: Rules of Procedure
    Article 34: Third Party Participation
    Article 35: Role of Experts
    Article 36: Initial Report
    Article 37: Final Report
    Article 38: Implementation of Final Report
    Article 39: Review of Implementation
    Article 40: Further Proceeding
    Article 41: Suspension of Benefits
    Article 42: Enforcement Principle
    Article 43: Private Rights
    Article 44: Protection of Information
    Article 45: Cooperation with the ILO
    Article 46: Extent of Obligations
    Article 47: Funding of the Commission
    Article 48: Article 48: Privileges and Immunities
    Article 49: Definitions
    Part Seven: Final Provisions
    Article 50: Annexes
    Article 51: Entry into Force
    Article 52: Amendments
    Article 53: Accession
    Article 54: Withdrawal
    Article 55: Authentic Texts
  32. Understanding Between the Parties to The North American Free Trade Agreement Concerning Chapter Eight- Emergency Action
    Article 1: Objectives
    Article 2: Working Group on Emergency Action
    Article 3: Functions of the Working Group
    Article 4: Definitions

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